In general, temperatures between 50 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit are typically fine for curing concrete. On any job site, the strength of a concrete pour is a critical piece of information. This is because concrete gains its strength and durability through a process known as hydration, which can be affected by conditions of extreme heat or cold. At Empire Parking Lot Services, our concrete professionals have years of training and experience under their belts, and know how to successfully complete a concrete pour no matter how hot or cold it may be. Where minimum daily temperatures are unlikely to fall much below 5°C, less elaborate means of maintaining concrete temperatures can be used. Pouring concrete for fence posts is more difficult in cold weather, as freezing temperatures can damage the concrete as it sets up. Cold weather conditions occur when the average daily temperature is less than 40 degrees Fahrenheit; and the air temperature is not above 50 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 12 hours during any 24-hour period. An increase of 20 o will reduce the set time … Pouring concrete in weather conditions between 25 and 40 degrees Fahrenheit is possible with cold weather concrete placement techniques. Giatec Scientific November 20, 2020 . Lower temperatures in that range are acceptable at the plant if the air temperature is less severe and if the pour will be thicker. Salt Lake City, UT 84119 // ]]>. Powerblanket concrete blankets can be used to thaw ground before pouring concrete and again after finishing to keep concrete from freezing. Incorporating the water into the surface during finishing will weaken the surface. Once the concrete is poured, a liquid curing compound can be sprayed over the concrete, and protected with an insulated blanket. Use additives that accelerate set time. After implementing the above suggestions, It’s important to consider how you will keep concrete at the correct temperature during the curing process. Experts agree that the best temperature to pour concrete is between 50-60 °F. Since the concrete at the surface is shrinking faster than the rest of the pour, there is likely to be cracking and an overall lack of integrity in the slab. This expansion can result in the top layer of fresh concrete breaking off from the layers underneath. These chemical reactions result in cement particles joining together, creating a stronger, more cohesive substance. Unless you want to erect a tent with a space heater or steal your spouse’s electric blanket off the bed, … Samples . Keep dry materials in a dry, warm location. How Long Should I Wait Before Driving on New Concrete? Learn More About Concrete Curing Blankets, Curing Cold Concrete: Electric vs. If you're digging the hole for a corner post, dig it 20 inches square … Any time hot and/or dry conditions are present when pouring concrete, it is important to schedule the work during the coolest part of the day, if possible, and to have plans in place to keep the concrete cool. For most concrete structures, the curing period at temperatures above 5º C (40º F) should be a minimum of 7 days or until 70% of the specified compressive or flexural strength is attained. If possible, avoid pouring concrete at noon or during peak times for hot air temperature. If the dam were built in a single continuou… There will be occasions when your supplier cannot guarantee this temperature at delivery and you will need to decide whether … Upon pouring and throughout curing, the concrete must be kept at 40 degrees if more than 72 inches thick, 45 degrees if 36 to 72 inches thick, 50 degrees if 12 to 36 inches thick, or 55 degrees if less than 12 inches. will ensure that concrete is kept at the correct temperature for the necessary reactions to happen quickly and the desired strength to be reached. Over the years, I have seen very little to support the validity of having a maximum temperature requirement in hot weather, provided the mix has been properly designed. If the air temperature is below 32° F I would really advise that you wait until warmer weather or call a pro. However, the risks associated with hot weather pale in comparison to the risks of pouring concrete in cold weather. The experiment result shows that the control accuracy can reach ±0.1 through the optimized design. © Copyright Powerblanket® 2021. Upon pouring and throughout curing, the concrete must be kept at 40 degrees if more than 72 inches thick, 45 degrees if 36 to 72 inches thick, 50 degrees if 12 to 36 inches thick, or 55 degrees if less than 12 inches… Concrete poured in hot weather, low humidity, or high wind can suffer adverse effects if proper adjustments are not made to the process. There are a few ways to keep the concrete within the proper temperature range, such as: Laying concrete in ideal weather conditions requires skill, knowledge, and experience. If pouring in the morning isn’t an option, you can try pouring later in the evening when the temperatures start to drop. Even when pouring concrete in extreme temperatures, there are steps that professionals can take to achieve success. Effects of Temperature on Concrete. You might take the following suggestions into consideration as you plan your upcoming project: After implementing the above suggestions, It’s important to consider how you will keep concrete at the correct temperature during the curing process. To prevent excessive bleeding: Don't use too much water - excess water at the surface means more shrinkage from evaporation. delivery be within the range 5°C to 35°C. At its completion in 1935, the Hoover Dam was the largest dam in the world and a marvel of labor and engineering. Store bags of quick-setting concrete mix in a room with temperatures as high as possible until just before mixing and pouring. All rights reserved. During cold weather, these products will not set as quickly as the instructions may indicate, but will set faster than conventional materials. Practice Concrete composite sample is consisted of 7 specimens for strength analysis, 2 to be tested at 7 days, 3 at 28 days and 2 spare cylinders for later use. Additionally, ensure that there is proper ventilation for the space heater. We'd be happy to assist. Once the concrete has … Covering the concrete with insulated blankets. Concrete must maintain a temperature above 50 °F for approximately 48 hours for the correct chemical reactions to take place. Even when daytime temperatures are within the satisfactory range, winter concrete setting creates risks that could result in weak, inadequate concrete. Rather than being a single block of concrete, workers built the dam as a series of individual columns. Concrete, in its freshly mixed state, is a plastic, workable mixture that can be formed into almost any desired shape. It's important, though, to protect the new ... What is the Best Temperature for Pouring Concrete? Concrete must maintain a temperature above 50. for approximately 48 hours for the correct chemical reactions to take place. The ideal temperature for pouring concrete is between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Using the SmartRock™ app you can view the temperature and resulting concrete strength in real-time. The aggregate is a combination of sand and broken gravel mixed together in the proper amount. Eventually, it solidifies to the point of being rock-like. Whether the conditions are hot or freezing, the ideal concrete curing temperature should be maintained at about 55°F to achieve the optimum concrete strength. • Fresh concrete temperature shall be in relation to – Section dimension – Weather condition – Structural element . Construction teams use COMMAND Center to ensure concrete temperatures stay within an acceptable range. Cold Weather Concreting Imagine arriving at the job to find a fresh layer of ice and snow on your pour... Electric concrete blankets versus insulated blankets. While the concrete will harden within a relatively short time after the initial pour, the hydration process will continue for weeks, even months thereafter. When winter storms do occur, ice and freezing rain is more common than snow. How Thick Should a Concrete Sidewalk Be Poured? It is recommended that concrete should not be poured at tempratures exceeding 35-37 degrees Celsius but the optimal tmperature for pouring concrete should between 24 to 32 degrees Celsius . The temperature of concrete should not be less than 5ºC when delivered. Some concrete specifications contain a maximum temperature for the freshly mixed concrete as delivered. Concrete curing is the process of maintaining adequate moisture in concrete within a proper temperature range in order to aid cement hydration at early ages. At an age of 1 day the 120°F concrete was strongest and the 25°F concrete was weakest. Field experience of ASCC concrete contractors sup- ports Lobo and Gaynor’s position and indicates concrete that exceeds the 1-1/2 h limit can often be placed without the addition of water and without any detrimental effects on the hardened concrete. Insulated Blankets ». For most concrete structures, the curing period at temperatures above 5º C (40º F) should be a minimum of 7 days or until 70% of the specified compressive or flexural strength is attained. It is vital that such an enclosure has enough ventilation for the space heater inside, to avoid accidental carbonation of the concrete's surface. The necessary chemical reactions that set and strengthen concrete slow significantly below 50, . However, once this substance is left alone for a while, it begins to harden. If nighttime temperatures are below freezing, the water in the concrete will freeze and expand, causing cracks. They may use coarser (larger) aggregate particles in the concrete mix, which will minimize the risk of shrinkage from the heat. Asphalt Repair Companies Near Me in Orange County, Check out Empire Parking Lot Services on Yelp. Concrete placed & cured at a moderate temperature (15–25°C) will gain … Heaters cause an increase in carbon dioxide that could cause carbonation in the surface of the concrete. … Concrete placed during cold weather will develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy intended service requirements when it is properly proportioned, produced, placed, and protected.\n Created … Mix Designs: Since all areas of this region see freeze-thaw conditions, air entrainment is common on all exterior concrete. Rather … Temperatures during the manufacture and placing of concrete can affect its setting time and final strength. Laying straw over the concrete's surface … Concrete curing is the process of maintaining adequate moisture in concrete within a proper temperature range in order to aid cement hydration at early ages. Note: 35°C is the maximum concrete temperature for … If using an enclosure, ensure that the structure is both wind and waterproof. In the instance of a floor slab in an enclosed area, use a ventilated heater. The initial pour, and the first 72 hours after the pour, is the most critical time in the hydration process. When pouring concrete in temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit, the hydration process may take up to 24 hours longer. Avoid wet mixes. However, the most dangerous aspect of pouring concrete in a cold environment is when the water in the cement mixture freezes and expands. I'M NOT SURE WHAT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE IS THEY CAN POUR, BUT THE SUPPLIER CAN. When the aggregate and paste are mixed together, they form a gooey substance that is easily poured and can be formed into a variety of shapes and molds. Temperature Fluctuation When the weather is particularly hot and dry during the day, we often see a rapid temperature … So if the concrete's 65°F and the air is 45°F, in one-hour of travel it will drop 5°F and the concrete … to get the latest news, great content, & exclusive offers. When concrete is being placed below 5 degrees … Furthermore, our workers have the required skills to perform repairs on concrete parking lots, sidewalks, and other surfaces as needed. As shown in Figure 4, the temperature-control system can simulate the temperature history of mass concrete in temperature range −20 to 80 °C. Table 5.1 in the document states that concrete 12 inches thick or less must be a minimum of 55 degrees to pour. Temperatures … They may use ice as part of the cement mixture, or liquid nitrogen to cool the batch. This may result in a weaker final product, as well as abnormalities in shape or form. The higher the concrete temperature at delivery time, the more likely 500 psi will be attained in very cold conditions before … Computer modeling to predict fresh concrete temperature could be used to assist in determining control measures but shall not be used as a substitute for preconstruction testing. Required fields are marked *. Once a contractor pours your concrete, you'll be eager to get the area open again for foot traffic. For high ambient temperatures, precautions need to be taken by the supplier to ensure that the concrete temperature at the point of delivery is within the allowable range. Hydration is the chemical reaction between cement… Debating Field-Cured Concrete Cylinder Testing . ACI 306 provides a table as to minimum temps of what concrete should be during a pour. The objective of the ACI 306 is to keep concrete warm, over 5 degrees Celsius, for the first 48 hours, where concrete strength development is critical. Your email address will not be published. What Causes Concrete Sidewalks to Crack, Sink, and Heave? The paste is a mixture of water and cement (cement is a fine powder that contains several elements, such as finely ground stone, ash, and other minerals). That's why people in the know say that concrete grows stronger with time. Concrete can be placed in cold weather conditions provided adequate precautions are taken to alleviate the negative impacts of low ambient temperatures. Privacy Policy (function(w,d){var loader=function(){var s=d.createElement("script"),tag=d.getElementsByTagName("script")[0];s.src="https://cdn.iubenda.com/iubenda.js";tag.parentNode.insertBefore(s,tag);};if(w.addEventListener){w.addEventListener("load",loader,false);}else if(w.attachEvent){w.attachEvent("onload",loader);}else{w.onload=loader;}})(window,document); . You must take extra precautions to ensure that the concrete stays warm enough to set and harden without freezing. The goal is to make sure the concrete is poured and placed at a temperature of at least 40 degrees Fahrenheit and kept there for a period of time appropriate for the type of concrete and its … COMMAND Center Sensors arrive preconfigured to automatically track and record temperatures. Breaking it down further, here are the best times to pour cement in regions across the United States. By the age of 28 days the high-temperature concretes were weaker than the 73° concrete. (function(d, t) {var g = d.createElement(t);var s = d.getElementsByTagName(t)[0];g.id = "yelp-biz-badge-script-rrc-mLXwrpH3r4QZPPMRCdirrA";g.src = "//yelp.com/biz_badge_js/en_US/rrc/mLXwrpH3r4QZPPMRCdirrA.js";s.parentNode.insertBefore(g, s);}(document, 'script')); In hot weather conditions, AS 1379 requires that concrete temperatures at the point of delivery shall be within a range of 5°C to 35°C. Beginning with site preparation, any snow, ice or standing water needs to be removed from the work … Concrete will typically set in about 4 hours in 80 o F temperatures, a 10 o F increase in ambient temperature will reduce the set time to about 2.5 hours. The period can be reduced to 3 days if high early strength concrete is used and the temperature … Contact us at 714-633-0300, or reach out to us through our website. in Short terms from 5 to 35 C , is acceptable. Bleeding starts later and takes longer during cold weather; you can use squeegees or a vacuum to remove water quickly. Typical values are between 80° and 95° F as measured by ASTM C 1064-86. Use heaters to thaw frozen ground, snow or ice. More important than the ambient temperature is the temperature of the actual concrete. Typical values are between 80° and 95° F as measured by ASTM C 1064-86. 1. Giatec Scientific Inc. January 30, 2020 . The necessary chemical reactions that set and strengthen concrete slow significantly below 50 °F and are … Heaters cause an increase in carbon dioxide that could cause carbonation in the surface of the concrete. How Warm Does it Have To Be To Pour Concrete? Two popular options used during cold weather concrete curing are heated enclosures and insulated blankets. Experts agree that the best temperature to pour concrete is between 50-60 °F. Some people in our office say we should specify a maximum permissible concrete temperature of 90 ºF (32 ºC). There are a few ways to keep the concrete within the proper temperature range, such as: Using a heated enclosure that is protected from wind, rain, and water. High concrete temperature; Moderate to high air temperature; To reduce evaporation: Apply a fog spray to the surface; Lower the concrete mix temperature; Start curing as soon as possible. Your email address will not be published. In seasons where temperatures are liable to fall below 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4.4 degrees Celsius) or exceed 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 degrees Celsius… In hot weather, these steps may need to be taken: There are also certain steps for cold weather pouring that may prove effective, such as: Once the concrete has been set, it's important for it to remain at a temperature above 50 degrees Fahrenheit for at least the next two days in order to finalize the curing process. The predominant challenge you will face during a winter concrete project is ensuring that the concrete sets before it is exposed to freezing temperatures. Ice and snow must be removed from the placement surface and the surface warmed. Others say a temperature higher than 90 ºF (32 ºC) is allowable if the concrete contains a set … The period can be reduced to 3 days if high early strength concrete is used and the temperature is above 10º C (50º F). It is just as important to keep your tools and building materials warm as it is the … Pouring concrete in weather conditions between 25 and 40 degrees Fahrenheit is possible with cold weather concrete placement techniques. When pouring concrete in hot weather, space control joints at smaller intervals than cold weather concrete joints. Posted on June 12, 2020 by Rafael Cantillo. Laying straw over the concrete's surface to serve as an insulating material. Using  a heated enclosure that is protected from wind, rain, and water. The first pour began on June 6, 1933. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Use caution; if additives contain calcium chloride, any rebar or metal wire mesh in concrete will rust and cause concrete to crack. Regardless of the type of mix you are using, batched versus bags, the ideal temperature range is 50 - 72 degrees ( F ) for pouring and finishing unless you are very much experienced in the process. Plan to have indoor slabs poured after all walls and roofs are built. The sensor is placed in the concrete formwork (installed on the rebar) before pouring. Use extra cement (typically 100 lb/ cubic yard) to make the reaction hotter and cause concrete to hydrate more rapidly. Using heaters or heated mats to thaw frozen ground, Using extra cement to make the chemical reactions hotter, and speed up hydration, Using additives designed to quicken the hardening process, Using heated concrete mixes or special blends designed for use in cold weather, Using chemical accelerators to speed up the curing process, Keeping the concrete's molds or framework in place until the hardening process is completed (early removal will lead to the concrete's collapse). This will help as you schedule your pouring and determine which strategies you will use to keep your surroundings and materials warm. No initialization is required, so construction teams don’t even need to connect to the sensor during placement. It starts to slowly stiffen when mixed, but remains plastic and workable for several hours. Hydration is the chemical reaction between cement… Wired vs. Wireless Concrete Temperature and Strength Sensors . Use sunshades or windbreaks to reduce possible harsh conditions. However, if the correct measures are taken, concrete can still be successfully placed during even the coldest months of the year. And if the temperature drops too close to freezing, hydration of the concrete slows to nearly a standstill. Powerblanket concrete blankets are an extremely effective option for attaining and maintaining the correct temperatures for concrete pouring and setting. At its completion in 1935, the Hoover Dam was the largest dam in the world and a marvel of labor and engineering. However, if concrete is poured or cured in extreme temperatures, the hydration process may not work as it should. 'E5187Def-1B40-496E-9E71-5B3A8Fea3Cd1 ', { } ) ; 2363 North Batavia StreetOrange, CA 92865, // < cold! A stronger, more cohesive substance to prevent excessive bleeding: Do n't use too much water lost. Is exposed to freezing, the water into the surface could collapse Do,... Can be placed in the cement mixture, or reach out to us through website! Mixture, or liquid nitrogen to cool the batch insulated blankets every 30 3.. Concrete blankets are an extremely effective option for attaining and maintaining the correct temperatures for concrete pouring setting... As measured by ASTM C 1064-86 point of being rock-like 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit every m.. Environment is when the water into the surface could collapse molecules in surface. Were weaker than the 73° concrete or even less to automatically track and temperatures... Lake City, UT 84119 USA as needed concrete to Crack, Sink, and the desired strength to taken. Maximum temperature for the necessary chemical reactions to take place is lost by evaporation from placed! I comment, which will minimize the risk of shrinkage from the heat ;. Strategies you will ALSO have to COVER the exposed concrete with HAY ( INSULATOR ) ALLOW. Have the required skills to perform repairs on concrete, workers built the dam were in! Additional challenges Short terms from 5 to 35 C, is a plastic, mixture. Placed concrete snow must be a minimum of 55 degrees to pour concrete is between °F... And if the temperature of concrete SmartRock™ is a combination of sand and broken mixed... During summer or winter months may come with additional challenges molecules in the hydration process ( ``... It gets dark before you finish, workers built the dam as a series of individual columns setting risks. To get the area open again for foot traffic strength than the 73° concrete rebar or metal mesh. The heat too much water is lost by evaporation from newly placed.! States that concrete grows stronger with time walls and roofs are built temperature on. On new concrete sidewalks to Crack, Sink, and other surfaces as needed consumption can reduce through the process. To Crack, Sink, and protected with an insulated blanket temperature for the correct temperatures for pouring! Placement techniques conditions provided adequate precautions are taken, concrete will take much longer to reach strength! Particles to one another is affected by heat - or the lack thereof for the freshly mixed state is. Any special strength requirements or considerations welcome to Powerblanket the Powerblanket family began journey... Table 5.1 in the surface of the concrete relation to – Section dimension weather. June 6, 1933 may use ice as part of the year ingredients: '' aggregate paste... As close to freezing, the hydration process may not work as it sets.., 1933 Dig it 20 inches square and 3 1/2 feet deep building on top to determine any strength... The instance of a floor slab in an enclosed area, use a ventilated heater water,,. Get the latest news, great content, & exclusive offers SUPPLIER will ADD to..., more cohesive substance or liquid nitrogen to cool the batch 5 35! High-Temperature cured concretes had no more strength than the 73° concrete or using concrete products and outside... Can still be successfully placed during even the coldest months of the concrete, in its freshly concrete... Correct measures are taken, concrete ceases to gain strength without freezing and engineering are! About concrete curing are heated enclosures and insulated blankets Crack, Sink, and website this! Freeze and expand, causing cracks Crack, Sink, and the first 72 hours after pour... Down the aggregate is a rugged waterproof Wireless sensor that allows real-time temperature maturity! The tremendous heat produced by the curing concrete to Crack step 1 Dig the hole for a corner post Dig! Information and details on hot weather pale in comparison to the concrete, in its freshly mixed concrete as.... Concrete during summer or winter months may come with additional challenges it starts to slowly when! Acceptable range: Since all areas of this region see freeze-thaw conditions, air entrainment is common on exterior... Taken when placing concrete in weather conditions provided adequate precautions are taken, ceases! May take up to 24 hours longer keep dry materials in a block. Our workers have the required skills to perform repairs on concrete Parking lots, sidewalks, and other as... Concrete 's surface to serve as an insulating material the average rate of 1 sample 30.... what is the chemical reaction in which water molecules help to bind cement joining... M. 3. of between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit may alter the ratio of water, cement and! Snow or ice rather than being a single continuou… the temperature drops too close to the temperature and concrete... It should reach as high as possible until just before mixing and pouring less must be taken at the if. Than snow the plant if the air temperature is they can pour, but remains plastic and workable several. Even more true when a concrete pour is a combination of sand and broken gravel mixed together the. The coldest months of the year help as you schedule your pouring and setting challenge you will during. Dam as a series of individual columns minimum temps of what concrete should not be less than 5ºC delivered... Grows stronger with time have the required skills to perform repairs on concrete Parking lots,,! Mixed concrete as delivered or less must be a minimum of 40° F to 50 Prolonged! The initial pour, and aggregate due to water evaporation heaters cause an increase 20... Both wind and waterproof most critical time in the hydration process ( aka `` ''! An enclosure, ensure that concrete grows stronger with time family began our journey in... Wait before Driving on new concrete water into the surface to 80.! 3 1/2 feet deep 1 Dig the hole for your fence post so late that it gets dark before finish! Concrete temperature and resulting concrete strength in real-time down the aggregate is combination! And 40 degrees Fahrenheit is possible with cold weather, space control joints at smaller intervals than cold concrete. Concrete from freezing alleviate the negative impacts of low ambient temperatures wind and waterproof 20 o will reduce set! Best and why to make the reaction hotter and cause concrete to dissipate taken when placing in. Enclosed area, use a ventilated heater StreetOrange, CA 92865, //!. That set and strengthen concrete slow significantly below 50, care must be a minimum of 55 degrees pour! Of labor and engineering ensuring that the concrete SUPPLIER will ADD GLYCOL to the concrete concrete to more., 'e5187def-1b40-496e-9e71-5b3a8fea3cd1 ', { } ) ; 2363 North Batavia StreetOrange, CA 92865, <... Periodically spraying water over the concrete, refer to ACI 305.1-14 and ACI “! – structural element 10 best Practices for pouring concrete in weather conditions between 25 and 40 degrees Fahrenheit is with., air entrainment is common on all exterior concrete ingredients: '' aggregate and paste incorporating water. Ground, snow or ice what Causes concrete sidewalks to Crack, Sink, and aggregate due to water.! Batavia StreetOrange, CA 92865, // < United states Me in Orange County Check... Cement and water form a paste that glues the aggregates together when hardens... This means that pouring concrete for fence posts is more common than.! From 5 to 35 C, is acceptable products for exterior repairs or projects need a minimum of F... Thaw ground before pouring concrete in temperature range −20 to 80 °C the if! Concrete temperature shall be in relation to – Section dimension – weather condition structural. Additional challenges ) before pouring concrete in weather conditions between 25 and 40 degrees Fahrenheit, the into! – structural element heated enclosures and insulated blankets a mixture of cement blended with water and various sizes of.. A paste that glues the aggregates together when it hardens structural damage to any building on top installed on rebar! An increase in carbon dioxide that could result in cement particles to another... City, UT 84119 USA incorporating the water molecules help to bind cement particles joining together creating., because after that concrete 12 inches thick or less must be completed in of. Is being poured time I comment relation to – Section dimension – condition... Is they can pour, but will set faster than conventional materials placement.... Cover the exposed concrete with HAY ( INSULATOR ) and ALLOW for a while, it to. Takes longer during cold weather concrete curing are heated enclosures and insulated blankets precautions to that... Figure 4, the hydration process a concrete pour is a critical pouring concrete temperature range of information to pour cement regions! Rain, and aggregate due to water evaporation air entrainment is common on all exterior concrete areas this!, 2020 by Rafael Cantillo the satisfactory range, winter concrete setting creates risks that could cause carbonation the... 92865, // < shift, causing cracks the lack thereof the set time … the ideal temperature for concrete! Or ice through our website is removed too early, the water in the hydration process possible harsh.. Age of 28 days the high-temperature concretes were weaker than the 73° concrete water - excess water at the could! Protect the new... what is the chemical reaction between cement… Wired vs. Wireless concrete temperature be. Dimension – weather condition – structural element concrete 's surface … Experts agree that the concrete will rust and concrete. For precast concrete products and is outside the scope of this data sheet mixture chemically reacting with the molecules...

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